Note: Multiplayer rulesets use movement rates 2x higher than Classic rules. Movement rates given in this document reflect the 2x rates.

Quick Jump: Unit Catalogue

Unit Overview[]

Units may be classified as military, non-combatant (Settlers, Workers, and Engineers), diplomatic (the Diplomat and Spy), scouting (Tribesmen, Explorers, AWACS, Satellite, Spy Plane), and commerce (Caravans, Wagons, Trains, Trucks, commerce ships, Goods, and Freight).

Supporting your units has a cost. Depending on your form of government, each unit may cost 1 shield upkeep per turn. After Banking tech, upkeep for military foot units changes to 1 gold per turn, which is cheaper than 1 shield per turn. Settlers and other population units also require one or two food points per turn. Autocratic governments force cities to support several shieldupkeep units for free, which saves shields for more production.

Under representative governments, 1 or 2 citizens become unhappy for each aggressive unit outside your borders and for each field unit inside your borders. This makes war more expensive under representative government, since shields are required to support each unit and income must be diverted to luxury points to calm the populace.


Units begin each turn with with refreshed move points. Each unit type has its own move rate.

Damage reduces movement. Movement points are reduced for damaged Land and Sea units, in proportion to the extent of their damage. (However, even if damaged to 1 hitpoint, the minimum speed a unit may move is 1 move point, unless otherwise noted in the Unit Catalogue below.) Damaged Air units are not slowed by damage.

Use it or lose it. Movement points not consumed by the end of the turn are lost and cannot be stored or transferred.

Movement bonuses.

  • Sea units gain +2 moves with the Lighthouse or Nuclear Power.
  • Mounted units gain +1 move with Genghis Khan's Equestrian School.
  • Foot units gain move bonuses from the Agōgē of Sparta.
  • Land units who are veteran-level v4 gain + move point—enough to travel one more tile but not attack at full strength.
  • Marines have a stronger version of this above, gaining +²⁄₉ move points for each veteran level.
  • Air and Sea units gain a full +1 move upon reaching v4.
  • Nationalist governments get +1 move for Armor type units.

Move bonuses don't transfer to the work-rate of a unit.

Movement mechanics. Every action undertaken by a unit uses move points. Standard actions use 1 move. Some actions use fractional moves.

The most basic action is movement. Units can move to any of the eight adjacent tiles under fairly obvious rules: Land units are confined to land and transport vessels; ships are confined to water and waterfront cities; aircraft ignore terrain, though they must often end their turn where they can refuel—see the description of each unit for specific restrictions. Moving one tile usually consumes one movement point, and units can always move at least one tile regardless of their wounds. Rough terrain can be more costly for Land units, as detailed in the terrain catalogue. Except for Marines and Anti-Aircraft Artillery, Land units disembarking from ships lose all remaining move points.

Zones of Control[]

Most military Land units have the ability to impose zones of control (ZoC), while only two types of Air unit can do so. If an enemy unit imposes ZoC, most of your units can't move from a tile adjacent to an enemy unit, to a tile adjacent to an enemy unit, unless first retreating to a non-adjacent tile. There are several exceptions to this rule:

  1. The moving unit ignores zones of control (e.g., Air unit, Sea unit, Diplomat), OR
  2. The enemy unit does not impose ZoC:
  3. The target tile has a friendly city, base, OR
  4. The target tile has a friendly unit which does not ignore ZoC: (e.g., not an Air unit, Diplomat, etc.).
    • This rule is called the zoc_purity rule.
      • Military units who ignore ZoC cannot remove enemy-imposed ZoC:
      • Non military units who ignore ZoC cannot remove enemy-imposed ZoC:
        • Tribesmen, Explorer, Diplomat, Spy, Caravan, Truck.

Passenger Transport[]

Many units can carry units as passengers, also called "cargo." Helicopters, Airplanes, and many Ships can transport specific types of units.

Names of Cargo Actions
Get On Get Off Explanation
Embark Disembark Action done by cargo units to an adjacent tile
Board Deboard Action done by cargo units on the same tile as a transport unit
Load Unload Action done by a transport to its cargo units on the same tile.

Embark and Disembark. Land units can embark and disembark from sea transport units whenever the transport is adjacent to land or another transport — this does not require ports or other facilities. In this case, the unit simply moves on or off the transport unit from an adjacent tile. Embarking to an adjacent tile uses one movement point. Disembarking usually takes up all move points. The following cases are exceptions: units who can disembark with only 1 move point, instead of losing all their moves: Missiles can disembark from Aegis Cruisers, Missile Destroyers, Carriers, Submarines, and Mobile SAMs with no movement penalties. Aircraft can always disembark with no penalty. Marines and Anti-Aircraft Artillery are the only land units who can disembark and use only 1 move point instead of losing all their moves.

Board and Load. If the unit and transport are on the same tile, the Board (shift-B) command orders the cargo unit to get on the transport. The Load Transport (L) command orders a transport to scoop up legal cargo units. Boarding and Loading use no move points. Board and Load create the same result: the only difference is the first is for a cargo unit; the second is for a transport unit.

Deboard and Unload. In Cities, Naval Bases, and Quays, land cargo is able to Deboard from a ship by using the Deboard Transport (shift-T) command. There is no movement cost. Likewise, giving a transport the Unload Transport (T) command achieves the same result. From an Air unit, Deboarding is also legal in an Airbase. Deboarding and Unloading, when possible, are better than Disembarking, because there is no movement cost to the cargo. In the special case of Marines and Anti-Aircraft Artillery, Unload Transport and Deboard can be used to exit onto any land tile with zero move cost. Cargo units on land transports such as Wagons, Trains, and Trucks have special rules that vary with the cargo type and the transport type. Read the helptext on the transport unit for details.

Swapping cargo at sea with Board and Deboard is legal if the first Transport has half or more of its moves left.* (Embarking/Disembarking to an adjacent transport is always legal, but costs the cargo a move point.)

* The "Lighthouse rule" is an exception: The first transport must have used no more than 4 moves. Since 5 moves is more than half the moves of almost all transports, this rule is usually inactive.


Land units, Bombs, and Missiles can be airlifted instantly between airports in friendly cities with the airlift action. Air units can also "airlift" themselves—considered to simply be a solo flight. Under default settings, the number of airlifts per turn an airport can receive is limited to the city's population divided by 3, rounded to the nearest whole number. An airlift depletes a unit's movement points for that turn.


This is a special type of movement that only Paratroopers can perform. From a friendly city or airbase, Paratroopers who have moves left and have not already paradropped in the current turn, can paradrop directly to any tile in range, and be immediately ready to act there. They are assumed to have arrived from aircraft, which makes them susceptible to vigil.


Besides movement, units can engage in other in-game actions.

Sentry, Fortify, and No Orders[]

If a unit has no other orders such as Goto, Pillage, etc., it typically resides in one of several non-action states:

  1. Fortify (F)
    • Unit will dig in and fortify itself for a 1.5× defense bonus, or already is fortified.
    • This state is available to most land units.
  2. Sentry (S) - This state is available to all units (except fuel-based units who are not on a re-fueling tile.)
    • Unit will not ask orders unless it sees enemy movement in its vision radius. It will also report what it sees.
  3. No Orders (J)
    • The unit has been told to be quiet, do nothing, and not ask for orders.

* At Freeciv-Web, if a unit is given an order for one of the above actions but it is not legal, it will attempt to do the next action listed below it. For example, a Fighter on a non-refueling tile can neither fortify nor sentry—if given the order to Fortify, it will interpret that as an instruction to have No Orders.

Tile Work[]

Only units who can do tile work can improve tile terrain with Roads, Irrigation, Bases, and so on. The following units can do tile work: Founders, Settlers, Tribesmen, Well-Digger, Workers, Legion, Proletarians, Engineers, and Marines. Proletarians are the only migrant-types who can do tile work.


One turn can be spent to pillage and destroy a tile improvement. All Land units can pillage except certain civilian units: Caravans, Explorers, Diplomats, Pilgrims, Tribesmen, Wagons, Trucks, Trains, Goods, Freight.

Civilian units who can pillage are: Founders, Settlers, Workers, Engineers, Proletarians, and Spies.


The ability to instantly pillage is called iPillage. Units with high destructive capacity can pillage instantly. Each unit capable of iPillage has a distinct type of iPillage it can do. The following units can iPillage: Armor, Armor II, Dive Bomber, Strategic Bomber, Ground Strike Fighter, and Jet Bomber. Odds of success are increased 5% for every veteran level.


The ability to attack or defend, whether in Standard Attack, Special Unit Attack, or Special Unit Defense. See the section on Combat.

Diplomatic Actions[]

Spies and Diplomats can do many types of diplomatic actions which are detailed in the Diplomacy section. Tribesmen, Explorer, and Satellite can also do the most basic diplomatic action, Investigate City.


As history progresses, you'll find you possess ancient units which are no longer viable in the current stage of history. Most units upgrade to better versions of themselves after discovering a later technology. Units can upgrade in any domestic city by using the Upgrade command. The cost of upgrading a unit is the new unit's remaining buy cost if the unit had disbanded into its own upgraded version (contributing half of its shields). That is, if:

S = new_unit_shield_cost - (old_unit_shield_cost/2)


upgrade gold cost = 2S + S2 / 20

Training and retrofitting make the cost of upgrading high, but it can be lower under some conditions. Leonardo's Workshop gives 2 free upgrades per turn. Tesla's Laboratory gives 1 free upgrade per turn and reduces upgrade costs by 20%. The Recycling tech reduces upgrade costs by 20%. Conscription allows converting (shift-O) obsolete Foot units to Musketeers for free in a domestic city. Labor Union allows converting Musketeers to Riflemen for free in a domestic city. Finally, the Nationalist government's upgrade costs are 25% lower.

Unit Catalogue[]

This manual lists units somewhat chronologically.

Several attributes define each unit in the following list. The Cost specifies how many production points a city must invest to build one unit. M is the number of movement points the unit gets each turn. C is the number of other units that it can carry (transport capacity). The combat statistics A attack strength, D defense strength, HP hit points, and FP firepower are all explained in the section describing Combat. SUA and SUD refer to Special Unit Attacks and Special Unit Defense, respectively. Pop.Cost refers to how much population a city is reduced by if it makes the unit. Pop.Add refers to how much the city size will grow if the unit joins a city. iPillage refers to iPillage, above.

Pre-historic Age[]

Founders.png Founders cost:-- M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:25 FP:1

Pop.Add: 2

Settlers.png Settlers cost:40 M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1

Pop.Cost: 1 Pop.Add: 1

Tribesmen.png Tribesmen cost:-- M:1⅓*

A:1 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Warriors.png Warriors cost:8 M:2

A:1 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Welldigger.png Well-Digger cost:5 M:3

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Upkeep: 2F 5P 2

Boat.png Boat cost:10 M:4 C:1

A:0 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Geographic expansion, early trade, and primitive warfare require no technology.

  • Founders can found new cities of size 2, improve land, and build roads. They are the same as Settlers in other respects, but cannot be bribed, are slightly stronger against attack, and can see slightly farther.
  • Settlers can found new cities of size 1, improve land, and build roads. Settlers are your only means of founding new cities. Settlers can perform most of the terrain alterations as Workers (but can’t build Airbases or Buoys). Upkeep for Settlers costs food as well as production. A Settler can die if its supporting city runs out of food. Settlers in a Republic, Democracy, or Theocratic nation require twice as much food per turn. Settlers and other population units can be made in a size 1 city only if you go in the options tab and select ☑ Disband city if Settlers built at size 1. In such case, all units the city supports will assign to your next closest city for their home city, so make sure it can support all the new upkeep!
  • Tribesmen Tribesmen are starting units which can't be built; they are the original ancestors of your nation. They can explore by moving over terrain with no penalty, using only ⅓ move point as if every tile had a road. They don’t obey or exert ZOC. They work tiles at half the rate of Workers, contributing ½ worker turn every turn. They have a 3× bonus at hunting wild animals, and defend at 2× against them. Tribesmen can make basic diplomatic contact and freely Investigate cities. They can carry Goods and enter nations with whom you are at Peace. They can do primitive combat—they can’t conquer cities and only fight 10 combat rounds. Tribesmen help build nations by recycling into city production with a 2× bonus, donating their life-work to any output except units. Changing production target loses their work! Tribesmen start with bonuses they lose as you become more civilized. For the first three turns they get a +⅓ move bonus. After 20 turns (2000BC), Tribesmen get old: they lose ⅓ move, see less, lose the recycle bonus, and can no longer work tiles. At such point they are still serviceable for weak defense, carrying Goods, making contact, and recycling for 10 shields.
  • Warriors are the first unit that is specialized for military purposes only. They are the most basic military unit. Upon the discovery of Conscription, they can convert to Musketeers for free in any domestic city (conversion time; 2 turns.)
  • The Well-Digger is unique—you can only make one. If you are unlucky and start with no water source, it can create it. Then it should be disbanded immediately to avoid high upkeep. A Well-Digger can dig a well on any tile. To dig a well, find the command in the unit's orders menu (or use Do>Change Extra Target>River; Build Road.) A Despotic city requires +2 Food and +2 Prod for upkeep. THE WELL-DIGGER WILL NOT WORK IF: 1) He is outside your borders. 2) He reaches an Age of 10 turns, 3) You discovered Alphabet or Pottery. 4) Any player in the world discovers Writing. Well-Diggers are not units to fool around with. They are specially designed to only be useful for an unlucky nation with no water, in its first turns of existence. If that's not the case, then this unit will cost you more than you gain.
  • Boats can engage in primitive commerce, establishing early trade routes or helping to build a first wonder. Boats can easily travel on rivers, but at sea, Boats must always stay adjacent to shore. Boats are very useful in transportation logistics prior to Bridge Building.

Bronze Age[]

Workers.mp2c .png Workers cost:30 M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Horsemen.png Horsemen cost:18 M:4

A:2 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Archers.mp2c.png Archers cost:24 M:2

A:3 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

SUA: Volley attack

SUD capable.

Phalanx.png Phalanx cost:16 M:2

A:1 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

SUA: Rumble attack

Trireme.png Trireme cost:20 M:6 C:2

A:1 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

These five units require only one technology to produce.

  • Workers can improve land with Irrigation, Roads, and Mines. Masonry lets Workers build Forts. Construction lets them build Fortresses and Oil Wells. Engineering lets them build Canals. Radio lets them build Airbases and Buoys, which Settlers cannot. Workers must be on a ship to build Buoys.
  • Horsemen provide rapid mobile offense or rapid defensive counterstrikes. Stone Age tribes are impressionable to tales. If discovered before 2500 BC, word will spread about the tribe who rides wild beasts in war.
  • Archers are multi-purpose offense/defense. Rather than battle a single unit to the death, Archers can opt for a Volley Attack with no risk of retaliatory damage: arrow volleys are fired on up to 3 enemy units on the tile for 2 combat rounds, causing up to 1-2 hitpoints of damage to any units who are hit. Volley Attacks can be done from fortified positions without losing fortified status. (Volley Attack is not possible on Cities or Fortresses, as they provide cover from incoming arrows.) Archers are capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks. Upon the discovery of Conscription, they can convert to Musketeers for free in any domestic city (conversion time; 1 turn.)
  • The Phalanx provides heavy defense and good value. If a Phalanx is fortified or has not moved this turn, it can Rumble Attack enemy units who move adjacent. (Enemies who come close get exposed to a tightly shielded formation attacking them with long sarissas. The Phalanx has no vulnerability during Rumble attacks, but its tight formation can only thrust at the exposed outer rank of enemies, targeting one single unit on the tile. Rumble attacks are meant to push and unsettle enemies, deterring them from safely fortifying into a tactical position. Indeed, damage incurred during a Rumble attack may be enough to deplete all the enemy's move points such that its fortifying gets delayed. Whether doing a standard attack or a Rumble attack, a Phalanx that is fortified while doing so will not lose its fortified status. Upon the discovery of Conscription, they can convert to Musketeers for free in any domestic city (conversion time; 2 turns.)
  • The Trireme is good for exploring the seas, transporting, and colonizing. It also has commerce ability: it can help build a Wonder, Enter a Marketplace, or establish a Trade Route. Triremes can travel and attack on rivers, but can't make shore attacks from sea. Triremes can go out to sea, but there is risk. They must end every second turn on a shoreline, river, or in a city; or else they are lost at sea. (To avoid being lost at sea, watch the "fuel counter.") When a Trireme attacks, there are 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost in the battle: this may or may not result in a victor. As a commerce unit, Triremes don't cause unhappiness.

Iron Age[]

Chariot.png Chariot cost:27 M:4

A:3 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Elephants.png Elephants cost:36 M:4

A:4 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Legion.png Legion cost:32 M:2

A:4 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

SUA: Pilum assault

Catapult.mp2c.png Catapult cost:34 M:2

A:6 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

SUD capable.

Longboat.png Longboat cost:25 M:6 C:1

A:2 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

Goods.png Goods cost:25 M:1

A:0 D:0 HP:1

Wagon.png Wagon cost:25 M:3⅓ C:2

A:0 D:0 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 3

Diplomat.png Diplomat cost:26 M:4

A:0 D:0 HP:8 FP:1

In the Iron Age, attack strength outpaces defense strength. Defense is difficult if not in walled cities or fortified on terrain with a defensive bonus.

  • For the cost, Chariots provide excellent movement and attack value.
  • For a higher cost, Elephants combine very high attack with mobility.
  • The Catapult is the strongest attack unit before gunpowder is discovered, but is slow and lacks defense. Catapults are capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks. Catapults subtract 0.25× from the defense bonus of City Walls and Fortifications, but cannot remove the separate terrain bonus from Fortifications.
  • The Legion might be the most feared unit of ancient times. Though slow, they combine high attack with good defense. They are famous for their discipline and engineering skills — they can build roads in non-domestic territory (and inside bases), and construct Forts and Fortresses. Legions are greatly feared for how they start battle: a Pilum Assault targets the shields of the enemy. A pilum stuck in a shield renders it useless, leaving the front line vulnerable to a full-on charge. The Pilum Assault does 1 round of combat at 2× attack bonus on up to 2 units on the tile. Upon the discovery of Conscription, they can convert to Musketeers for free in any domestic city (conversion time; 1 turn.)
  • The Longboat is the first offensive naval unit. Though it has no commerce ability, it is not restricted at sea. It can reign terror on other sea units. Longboats can travel and attack on rivers and make shore attacks from sea. When making attacks, there are 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost in the battle, which may or may not result in a victor.
  • Goods are commodities. Goods can be used to Establish Trade Route. They can be carried by Commerce units, allowing you to establish multiple trade routes in one voyage. Goods can Recycle Production with only a 25% penalty, rendering 19 shields into target production. Commerce units, Tribesmen, and Galleons may carry them as cargo. By themselves, Goods can only move onto tiles with a City, Quay, Fortress, Airbase, or Naval Base. If adjacent to a foreign city, use the D key to do Commerce functions.
  • Wagons are the first Land unit that can do Commerce. They are defenseless and can only travel on roads and quays. This exposes them to ambush and capture. Wagons can transport slower units to reach distant cities faster. Units with less than 3 moves can be carried on Wagons. Outside a city, units can board the wagon, but will lose their moves deboarding or disembarking.
  • Besides establishing an Embassy, your Diplomat can attempt to bribe or incite rebellion, make border claims on tiles for national sovereignty, and perform espionage and sabotage; see Diplomacy. Diplomats have no upkeep and are not subject to Zones of Control.

Age of Exploration[]

Explorer.png Explorer cost:20 M:2 (6)

A:0 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Siegeram.png Siege Ram cost:45 M:2 C:1

A:2 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

SUA: Attack City Walls, Ram Fortress

Galley.png Galley cost:30 M:6 C:2

A:2 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

Wargalley.png War Galley cost:40 M:6 C:3

A:3 D:3 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

Ramship.png Ram Ship cost:35 M:6 C:1

A:4 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

Caravan.png Caravan cost:30 M:2⁷⁄₉ C:2

A:0 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

Peasants.png Peasants cost:10 M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Pop.Cost: 1 Pop.Add: 1

  • Constitutional Monarchy only

The Age of Exploration sees both Land and Sea open up to faster moving units with greater vision.

  • Explorers treat all terrain as roads: each move expends only ⅓ move. This allows a range of 6 tiles per turn. Explorers have better vision than other land units, are not subject to Zones of Control, and have no upkeep. They can also Investigate City.
  • Siege Rams launch a tremendous thrusting force through iron-capped timber shafts to break down City Walls. Their odds of success are 50%, except against a capital city (25%). Siege Rams may also ram Fortresses, doing up to 4hp of damage on each occupant. This emulates damage to the defense bonus from the Fortress walls, which will be partly or fully repaired/recovered each turn. Siege Rams can shelter 1 Land unit as cargo, which can be used for disguise, surprise, or defense. Siege Rams need a minimum of 1 move point to attack a Fortress or City Walls.Cities protected by the Great Wall are immune to Siege Rams. The discovery of Metallurgy by any nation incapacitates Siege Rams. Siege Rams can only travel on roads.
  • Galleys upgrade the Trireme. They are the all-purpose sea unit of ancient times. They have decent attack and defense, transport ability, and are unrestricted at sea. Like the Trireme, Commerce abilities are to build wonders, enter marketplaces, and establish Trade Routes. Galleys can travel and attack on rivers, but cannot do shore attacks from sea. Like most ancient sea units, when making attacks, there are 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost in the battle, which may or may not result in a victor. As a commerce unit, Galleys don't cause unhappiness.
  • War Galleys have improved offense, defense, and cargo capacity over the Galley, but lack commerce abilities. They are the premier warship of ancient times. War Galleys can travel and attack on rivers, and also make shore attacks from the sea. Like most ancient sea units, when making attacks, there are 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost in the battle, which may or may not result in a victor.
  • The Ram Ship is an offensive weapon with only one purpose: destroying other ships. It can't make shore attacks. It has poor vision, no transport or commerce ability, and can't travel on rivers. Unlike other ancient ships, there is always a victor in battle. Ram Ships are good counterstrike units for nations not invested in sea techs. They are also good at the role of "heavy-first-hitter" when larger fleets engage in battle.
  • Each Caravan can carry 30 production points to contribute toward a Wonder in any city with whom you are not at war. They can establish Trade Routes with foreign cities 15 or more tiles distant, and also enter foreign cities with marketplaces for a one time sale of merchandise. To do this with start-unit Caravans, you must first assign them a home city with the H command. Caravans can carry 2 Goods units as cargo.
  • Peasants existed in all Monarchies. But in more advanced Constitutional Monarchies, these units represent the ability of the sovereign to legislate incentives for colonial migration. Peasants cost 1 population to build, and add 1 population to any city they join. However, they can only be made in the city that has the Magna Carta wonder. This makes them more limited than other migrant-type units; but on the plus side, Peasants cost no food upkeep.

Feudal Age[]

Pikemen.png Pikemen cost:18 M:2

A:1 D:2 HP:10 FP:1

  • 2x defence against Horse units.
  • Obsoletes Warriors, Phalanx
Knights.mp2c.png Knights cost:38 M:4

A:4 HP:10 FP:1

  • D:3 vs mounted units.
  • D:2 vs. all foot soldiers.
  • D:1 vs. everything else
  • Obsoletes Horsemen, Chariot
Crusaders.png Crusaders cost:38 M:4

A:5 D:1 HP:10 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Elephant
Caravel2.png Caravel cost:40 M:7 C:3

A:4 D:4 HP:10 FP:1

min_speed: 2

  • Obsoletes Galley, War Galley, Ram Ship

Feudalism and Chivalry advance military power.

  • Pikemen are like a Phalanx that's doubly effective against mounted units.
  • Knights defend well against other mounted units and their noble status allows them to attack cities without population reduction, and conquer size 1 cities without razing them.
  • Crusaders use weaponry that gives an attack advantage that can make a life-or-death difference in attacking against Knights and Pikemen, but this weaponry is not as good for defending.
  • The Caravel offers greater capacity and speed than the Galley it upgrades. It represents a significant naval advance in combat, speed, range, and transport capacity. It replaces many ancient sea units. Caravels provide most of the commerce abilities of the earlier Galley, but cannot build Wonders. Caravels can travel and attack on rivers, or make shore attacks from the sea. Like most ancient sea units, when it initiates an attack, there will be 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost between both units. This may or may not result in the loss of one of the units. As a commerce unit, Caravels don't cause unhappiness.

Age of Gunpowder[]

U.engineers.png Engineers cost:40 M:4

A:0 D:2 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Workers
Musketeers.mp2c.png Musketeers cost:30 M:2

A:3 D:3 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Archers, Legion, Pikemen
  • Obsoletes Warriors, Phalanx
Falconeers.png Falconeers cost:20 M:2

A:0.1 D:0.05 HP:20 FP:20

  • Theocracy only
Dragoons.png Dragoons cost:50 M:4

A:5 D:2 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Knights, Crusaders
Cannon.png Cannon cost:40 M:2

A:8 D:1 HP:20 FP:1

SUD capable.

  • Obsoletes Catapult
Galleon2.png Galleon cost:40 M:8 C:4

A:2 D:3 HP:20 FP:1

min_speed: 2

  • Obsoletes Caravel
Frigate2.png Frigate cost:50 M:8 C:2

A:4 D:3 HP:20 FP:1

min_speed: 2

Ironclad.png Ironclad cost:60 M:8

A:4 D:4 HP:30 FP:1

min_speed: 3

  • Obsoletes Frigate
Balloon1.png Balloon cost:25 M:5

A:0 D:0 HP:10 FP:1


Chemistry and Explosives give new technological possibilities.

  • Balloons can cross enemy borders with impunity, using their excellent vision to gather critical intelligence, then return to refuel at a city, fortress, airbase, or unit with cargo capacity of 4 or higher (Galleons, Cargo Ships, Transports, Carriers, and Trains.) They cannot cross Mountains. The Balloon is unreachable by primitive land and sea units, but can be attacked by land units from Riflemen onward, and by sea units from Ironclad onward. Once rifles are invented, using Balloons for military scouting becomes perilous. The Balloon does not block attacks on any other units on the same tile. Balloons give sentry reports of nearby unit movements even when not on sentry.
  • Engineers move and work twice as fast as Workers or Settlers and offer more ways to transform land.

Magnetism replaces the Caravel with two ships: the high capacity Galleon and the heavily armed Frigate. Both can travel rivers.

  • The Galleon is an armed transport ship that can carry up to 4 land units. Galleons can travel and attack on rivers, and make shore attacks from sea. When it initiates combat there will be 15 rounds of combat and 15 total hitpoints lost between both units. This will usually result in the survival of the Galleon, as it has 20hp. This makes the Galleon especially durable when attacked by older sea units, and a reliable transport. Galleons and all more modern units are subject to Stack-Escape. Although the Galleon is not officially a Commerce unit, it may enter Peace waters but cannot attack without first declaring war. This allows it to carry Goods for doing commercial functions. Since they have dual-purpose commercial functions, Galleons do not cause unhappiness.
  • The Frigate is a versatile and powerful ship that is both a superior offensive unit and a decent transport ship. The Frigate is the last ship which can travel and attack on rivers. From Frigates onward, all sea attacks end with a single victor. The Frigate and all future warships are formidable at making shore attacks from sea. Frigates and all more modern units are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • The Ironclad upgrades the Frigate after Steam Engine is researched. It is an armored ship that is much more sturdy than the Frigate but loses transport capability and the ability to navigate rivers. From Ironclad onward, all warships can attack Balloons, Helicopters, and pillage Buoys. Ironclads and all more modern units are subject to Stack-Escape.

The advent of Gunpowder and the advances which follow make earlier combat units struggle to compete. The Musketeer, Dragoon, and Cannon mirror the ancient pattern of Archers, Horsemen, and Catapults: slower multi-purpose offense/defense, fast mobile offense, and slow but powerful offense.

  • Falconeers are Theocratic holy warriors armed with Falconets—God favors the side with the largest hand cannons humans can carry. Falconets have terrible accuracy but absolutely deadly firepower:they either totally kill or totally miss. On paper, odds are closest to a Musketeer Yet there is a high chance of losing when you expect to win, or winning when you expect to lose. The outcome is in God's hands! Falconeers seem to defend worse than they attack, but the mechanic of "one hit and you're dead" can greatly amplify any defense bonuses. Only Theocracies can train Falconeers.
    • In non-theocratic government, Falconeers incur a 2× unhappy penalty when aggressively deployed; and each turn a Falconeer is not in a city center at turn-change, it has a 15% chance to disband.
  • Cannons are capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks. Cannons subtract -0.50× from the defense bonus of City Walls and Fortifications, but cannot remove the separate terrain bonus from Fortifications.

The Industrial Age[]


Transport cost:50 M:10 C:8

A:0 D:3 HP:30 FP:1

min_speed: 3

  • Obsoletes Galleon

Cargo Ship cost:45 M:7 C:4

A:0 D:1 HP:30 FP:1

min_speed: 2

  • Commerce unit

Destroyer cost:60 M:12

A:5 D:5 HP:30 FP:1

min_speed: 3

  • 4x defence against Submarine.
  • Obsoletes Frigate, Ironclad

Train cost:35 M:4*

A:0 D:1 HP:30 FP:1 C:6

min_speed: 4


Truck cost:50 M:6

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1 C:3

min_speed: 3

  • Obsoletes Caravan, Wagon

Spy cost:35 M:6

A:0 D:0 HP:8 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Diplomat

Pilgrims cost:10 M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Pop.Cost: 0 Pop.Add: 1

  • Theocracy only

Proletarians cost:10 M:2⅑

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Upkeep:1 food

Pop.Cost: 1 Pop.Add: 2

  • Communism only
U.migrants.png Migrants cost:10 M:2

A:0 D:1 HP:8 FP:1

Upkeep:2 food

Pop.Cost: 1 Pop.Add: 1

  • Nationalism only

The Industrial Age brings revolutionary changes to trade, diplomacy, commerce, society, and maritime operations.

  • Naval units are replaced by stronger versions with greater mobility. These and all later ships get improved vision, and can Stack-Escape.
    • Transports upgrade Galleons with greater movement, far greater transport capacity and the same defense strength. They are military vessels unwelcome in waters or nations with whom you are at Peace, but since they cannot attack, they do not cause unhappiness.
    • The Cargo Ship is the a modern ship that can travel on rivers and do Commerce functions.
    • The Destroyer's range and vision make it preferred for Submarine hunting. The Submarine and the Destroyer usually kill each other when attacking, but lose when defending—creating a deadly game of hide and seek.
  • Trade and Diplomacy gain mobility and greater capabilities.
    • Spies are capable of all the actions of Diplomats, and more. They can be given more precise orders, and often survive and can be reused. They can even Investigate City while on a Transport! Like Diplomats, they can make claims on tiles. Spies have no upkeep.
    • Trains are Commerce units with a bonus: they allow units with 2 or less move points to travel your rails at distances comparable to other units. Foot Soldiers, who were historically better value in offense/defense but hampered by poor mobility, can especially take advantage of this. However, Trains have some limitations: they can only move on rails, and incur full terrain movement cost when not on domestic or allied rails. On the plus side, Trains are fast-moving giants made of iron, making pre-gunpowder units unable to attack them or their cargo. Trains gain +1 move after discovering Electricity, and an additional +1 move after discovering Combustion.
    • Trucks are capable of moving farther and faster to establish Wonders or Trade Routes. In addition, they have a cargo capacity of 3. They can carry Goods, Bombs, and any land unit with less than 3 move points. Trucks have a superior movement rate of 6, but they can only move on Roads and Quays. They get no move bonus from Railroads.
  • Changes in government and ideology may create new models of citizenship.
    • Pilgrims give Theocratic governments an alternative to rapture growth. Under divine edict, population from faster growing cities can be transferred to other cities, accelerating population growth. Like Zealots, Pilgrims do not incur upkeep costs in food or shields while under a Theocratic government. Pilgrims cost no population to make, and add +1 population to the city they join.
    • Proletarians can be ordered by the Communist state from one city to another, which transfers population. They can also be ordered to the same tasks as Workers. Large numbers of Proletarians can be rapidly gathered to complete State projects. Proletarians subtract one from the city which made them, and add +2 to the city they join.
    • Migrants are citizens encouraged to settle in cities by Nationalist governments -- usually in conquered or colonized areas. They transfer population from one city to another. They cost 1 population to make, and add 1 population to the city they join. They are used to increase and geographically redistribute the national population.

Riflemen cost:40 M:2

A:5 D:4 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Musketeers
Zealots.png Zealots cost:20 M:2

A:4 D:4 HP:20 FP:1

SUA: Skirmish assault

  • Obsoletes Falconeers
  • Theocracy only

Cavalry cost:60 M:4

A:8 D:3 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Dragoons

Alpine Troops cost:50 M:2 (6)

A:5 D:5 HP:20 FP:1

Land forces also make substantial gains in military power:

  • Riflemen are foot soldiers with greater attack than defense, for the first time since the ancient Legions. As newer Foot units get rifles, muskets become available. Older Foots unit get a free "hand-me-down" upgrade to Musketeers with the discovery of Conscription, by using the convert command in any domestic city. This unit costs 5 less shields under Communism, and is produced with +1 veteran level under Nationalism.
  • Zealots can almost be thought of as half-priced Riflemen with no upkeep. They can only be produced by Theocratic governments. Though their attack is slightly less than Riflemen, their cost is much lower, and their fervent faith prevents them from being bribed. Under Theocracy, they can be directed to do Skirmish Assaults in their homeland. This does three free rounds of combat to degrade up to 4 units occupying a tile. Zealots also have ability to do insurrections in cities: that is, Skirmish Assaults can be done on any city which is occupied by a foreign power. Zealots produced in a city with an Ecclesiastical Palace are inspired by fervor to +1 higher veteran level. Zealots have strong faith and cannot be bribed. Under representative government, Zealots have a 2× unhappy penalty when aggressively deployed.
  • Cavalry are an improvement over Dragoons. Their mobility and attack strength make them the most feared offensive unit in their era.
  • Alpine Troops, like Explorers, expend ⅓ move per tile regardless of terrain; this makes Alpine Troops a powerful unit in mountainous regions.

Modern Technology[]

Cruiser.png Cruiser cost:80 M:11

A:6 D:6 HP:30 FP:2

min_speed: 3

  • 2x defence against Submarine.
Battleship.png Battleship cost:160 M:10

A:12 D:12 HP:40 FP:2

min_speed: 3

SUA: Bombard

SUD capable.

  • 2x defence against Submarine
Submarine.png Submarine cost:50 M:10 C:8

A:12 D:2 HP:28 FP:2

min_speed: 4

  • 2x defence against other Submarines

New warships offer vastly enhanced firepower, but can no longer travel on rivers.

  • The Cruiser is the first of all warships with firepower 2, a dominant warship that remains strong for a long time to come. Cruisers are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • The Battleship is the largest most durable and dominant warship ever made, and for this reason can still keep some relevance even in the late game when more advanced techs appear, if used for special purposes. The Special Unit Attack of the Battleship is the Bombard, which is 3 free rounds of ranged combat on up to 4 units on an adjacent tile. Battleships are equally capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks. Battleships are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • The Submarine compensates its weak defense by stealth — it is invisible to units or cities not immediately adjacent. Unlike other ships, it cannot attack Land units, but it can carry missiles. It has an artificially high 12 attack value that gives it enough move points after an attack to perform "hit-and-run." This gets equalized by an anti-Submarine bonus for many advanced warships. If grouped in numbers, Submarines are deadly effective against all surface ships in the game. The Submarine's ability to submerge makes it unreachable by aircraft or missile attack; however, it will not protect other units on the same tile from such attacks. Submarines are subject to Stack-Escape.
Marines.mp2c.png Marines cost:55 M:2*

A:8 D:5 HP:20 FP:1

SUA: Bazooka attack

  • ½ attack vs. Sea
  • Never blocked by Air units
Partisan.mp2.png Partisan cost:45 M:2 (6)

A:4 D:4 HP:20 FP:1

  • Obsoletes Explorer
Artillery-0.png Artillery cost:50 M:2

A:10 D:1 HP:20 FP:2

SUD capable.

  • Obsoletes Cannon

New skills and armaments come to armies on land.

  • Marines are the most powerful foot units in the game, and fight battles on air and land and sea: the only units Marines can't attack are Submarines, Missiles, and Planes. They can attack directly from transport units without needing to disembark first. They can even attack Sea units (at a -50% penalty.) They can disembark without losing all their moves, and can board and attack from Helicopters, Carriers, Cargo Ships, and Transports. No Air unit can block Marines from attacking a Land or Sea unit that they're normally capable of reaching. Marines progressively gain +²⁄₉ moves with every veteran level, and Elite veteran-3 Marines are promoted to Ranger with a 250% combat strength bonus. Battle training allows even higher bonuses, which they also have higher odds of achieving. Meanwhile, Hardened veteran-2 Marines can perform Bazooka attacks, which are (usually*) retaliation-free ranged attacks of 3 combat rounds on up to 2 adjacent units. Whether doing a standard attack or a Bazooka attack, Marines that are fortified while doing so will not lose fortified status. Marines can build Forts and Airbases. All these abilities make promoted Marines ideal as "Special Ops" forces. Besides combat training, veteran level can be increased by making Marines in a city with Barracks III, Airport, and Port Facility: Marines made in a city with all three buildings come out with +2 veteran levels.
  • The Partisan behaves like an armed Explorer, treating all terrain as roads and thus requiring only movement point to move 1 tile. Partisans live off the native land and have no upkeep. Some cities will generate them when conquered (see details page). Generated Partisans will have the same veteran level as if they had been built in the city prior to its conquest. Partisans are not subject to Zones of Control.
  • Artillery gets increased accuracy and a large boost to firepower, and is much stronger than a Cannon. Artillery are capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks. Artillery subtract 0.75× from the defense bonus of City Walls and Fortifications, but cannot remove the separate terrain bonus from Fortifications.
Zeppelin.png Zeppelin cost:45 M:6

A:2 D:1 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:3

SUA: Bomb

  • Obsoletes Balloon
Fighter.png Fighter cost:60 M:20

A:4 D: HP:20 FP:2

Airplane.png Airplane cost:50 M:20 C:1 Fuel:2

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1

Aaa.png Anti-Aircraft Artillery cost:50 M:2

A:2 D:2 HP:20 FP:2

  • 2x attack vs. Air
  • 2x defence vs. Air

With Flight, combat takes to the air. Diplomacy and trade can reach the edges of the world.

  • Zeppelins are the first primitive aerial combat units. They can sometimes be used to gain tactical advantages in combat, but they are better for aerial intel. They can do limited attack with primitive bombs, or 20 combat rounds with medium caliber ordnance. They can stay out for two Turn Changes before landing in a City, Quay, Fortress, Naval Base, Airbase, or transport with 6+ capacity. Zeppelins have great vision and are unreachable by units prior to Marines and Destroyers. Zeppelins do not block units under them from being attacked. Zeppelins give sentry reports of nearby unit movements even when not on sentry. Unlike Balloons, they can fly over Mountains.
  • Fighters have superior mobility and firepower which alter the nature of warfare. They can move anywhere and attack any unit except Submarines, Jet Bombers, Spy Planes, and Satellites. Fighters need fuel to avoid crashing and thus must end every turn in a city, on a Carrier or an Airbase. Fighters can't conquer undefended enemy cities. Like all Fighter-types in all MP rulesets, the Fighter prevents land and sea units from attacking the tile it is on. When air units attack ground units, they can retaliate -- but most ground units can't initiate attack on air units. Fighters can vigil if they have used 3 moves or less. This unit has higher odds of promotion under Nationalism.
    • Fighters, like all aircraft, can Stack-Escape.
    • Fighters, like all aircraft, will use whatever moves they have left to return to the nearest friendly city or airbase to refuel, when the turn ends. If they lack enough moves, they will crash and be lost.
  • Airplanes exploit Flight for non-military benefits, extending commercial and diplomatic outreach. These civilian units can carry one diplomatic unit or one Freight unit for commerce. Each new aviation tech upgrades range by +2 moves.
  • Anti-Aircraft Artillery ("AAA") are an exception: they are light-weight guns that can attack almost anything from anywhere, but their primary use is to support ground units against Air units. They are often used with Marines in combined ops because they can be transported by any unit that can transport Marines, can attack to and from non-native tiles, and do not lose a turn when unloading.
    • AAA can't attack Submarines, Missiles, or High Altitude aircraft (Spy Planes, Jet Bombers.)
    • AAA have a special bonus of being able to defend whatever unit is transporting them, no matter where it is.
    • After Space Flight and 10 turns of service, AAA can be retrofitted to Mobile SAM. The Convert order must be done in one of your capitals, and takes 4 turns.

High Technology[]

Freight Container.png Freight cost:25 M:1

A:0 D:0 HP:1

  • Obsoletes Goods

High technology brings improvements to industry, commerce, and logistics.

  • Like all Commerce units, Freight can Help Build Wonders or Establish Trade Routes. Unlike other Commerce units, it can Disband to Recycle Production with no loss of shields. This has a variety of creative industrial uses. Freight is only able to move to tiles with loading infrastructure: Cities, Quays, Fortresses, Airbases, and Naval Bases. To be transported, it must be carried by Train, Truck, Airplane, or ship. If adjacent to a foreign city, use the D key to do Commerce functions.
Divebomber.png Dive Bomber cost:60 M:18

A:3 D:3 HP:20 FP:2

iPillage: 50% M:6 Targets:1 selected

  • A:4.5 vs. surface targets
  • D:4 vs. Anti-Air
Escortfighter.png Escort Fighter cost:80 M:18

A: D:5 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:2

Mediumbomber.png Medium Bomber cost:85 M:15 C:0

A:7 D:2 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:2

The early part of the High Tech era sees strong advances in Air power:

  • The Escort Fighter has larger size for more fuel, more speed, and more damage absorption; but is less maneuverable for pursuing attacks. Its longer range and ability to stay in the air 2 turns make it well-suited for escorting bombers, longer range scouting with attacks on poorly defended targets, and defensive ground support requiring longer periods in the air. Like all Fighter-types in all MP rulesets, the Escort Fighter prevents land and sea units from attacking the tile it is on. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape. Escort Fighters can vigil if they have used 3 moves or less.
  • Dive Bombers are like Fighters but fitted for Ground Attack and Sea combat. Range is reduced by heavy armor and armaments which help in attacking surface targets and in defending against Anti-Air, but reduce mobility in Air-to-Air combat. Though unreachable to Land units, they lack agility to block attacks on their same tile. But over a wider radius, they exert ZoC on adjacent land tiles. The Dive Bomber is not an interceptor. Communist governments pay 10 less for this unit. This unit costs 10 less shields under Communism, and has higher chances of promotion under Nationalism.
  • The Medium Bomber can stay in the air longer than Fighters and take out stronger ground targets. The higher cost of the Heavy Bomber makes the Medium Bomber an option even after Heavy Bombers become available. A further incentive is that as a "soft field unit", Medium Bombers cause one less unhappy citizen than other Bombers, if aggressively deployed outside domestic territory.
  • NOTE: In MP2, Bombers are no longer forced to lose their turn and remain stuck in the air after a single attack. The Medium Bomber is unreachable by most land and sea units but doesn't block attacks on other units on the same tile. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape.
link= cruiser Missile Destroyer cost:60 M:12

A:5 D:5 HP:30 FP:2 C:1

min_speed: 3

  • 2x defence against Air & Missiles.
  • 2x defence against Submarine.
  • Can carry 1 Missile.
  • Obsoletes Destroyer
Aegiscruiser.png AEGIS Cruiser cost:100 M:11 C:2

A:8 D:8 HP:30 FP:2

min_speed: 3

  • 3x defence against Air & Missiles.
  • 2x defence against Submarine.
  • Can carry 2 Missiles.
  • Obsoletes Cruiser
Carrier.png Carrier cost:155 M:10 C:10

A:1 D:9 HP:40 FP:2

min_speed: 3

The modern navy is transformed by high tech.

  • The Missile Destroyer upgrades the Destroyer for late game action. Firepower is boosted to 2. To a lesser degree than its big brother the AEGIS, it has Missile interceptor systems which double defensive effectiveness against Air & Missile units.  The ability to carry one Cruise Missile completes the enhancements. Like all modern ships, they are subject to Stack-Escape
  • The defense strength of the AEGIS Cruiser is multiplied by 3 when attacked by aircraft, helicopters, and missiles. AEGIS Cruisers are the only ship that can directly attack an adjacent air unit. This unit also has the best vision of any combat unit in the game. Like all modern ships, they are subject to Stack-Escape
  • The Carrier arguably claims the throne from the Battleship as the new King of the Seas. It can't really attack, but the ability to carry up to 10 Air units is quite formidable. Carried units may be any mixture of any type of Aircraft, Anti-Aircraft Artillery, Marines, or Missiles. Carriers can Stack-Escape.
Armor.png Armor cost:80 M:6

A:10 D:5 HP:30 FP:1

iPillage: 75% M:2 Targets:1 selected

  • Obsoletes Cavalry
  • No penalties vs. Forts
  • Reduced penalty vs. Fortresses
Mechinf.png Mechanized Infantry cost:50 M:6

A:6 D:6 HP:30 FP:1

Howitzer.png Howitzer cost:70 M:4

A:12 D:2 HP:30 FP:2

SUD capable.

  • Obsoletes Artillery
Paratroopers-0.png Paratroopers cost:55 M:2, (14 paradrop range)

A:7 D:5 HP:20 FP:1

New ground forces offer the familiar choice between heavy attack strength and defense capability.

  • Armor is the fastest moving offensive unit on land. Its ability to break through forts at no penalty enables it to penetrate broken battle lines to seize advantage. Fortresses' 2x defense bonus is reduced to 1.67x. This unit is discounted 10 shields under Communism
  • Mechanized Infantry offer the best defense of any land unit in the game. This combines with superior mobility, good value, and moderate offensive capability, to provide a mainstay of late game armies. As new infantry upgrade to mechanized gear and weapons, older infantry get a free "hand-me-down" upgrade to become Riflemen, using the convert command in a domestic city.
  • Howitzers are not only the strongest offensive land unit, but they completely negate any defense bonus offered by Fortifications or City Walls (except the separate terrain bonus from Fortifications.) Howitzers are capable of Special Unit Defense, which means they can retaliate during Special Unit Attacks.
  • Paratroopers can be paradropped from friendly cities or airbases, allowing long range actions; they have a range of 14 tiles, and may move immediately after being paradropped. Paradropping requires the unit to have its full move points remaining.
U.bomber.png Heavy Bomber cost:120 M:16 C:1

A:12 D:3 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:2

  • Can carry 1 Bomb.
Awacs.png AWACS cost:140 M:32

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1 Fuel:2

Strategic Bomber.png Strategic Bomber cost:135 M:16 C:2

A:13 D:4 HP:20 FP:Fuel:3

iPillage: 60% M:3 Targets:1 random

  • Can carry 2 Bombs.
Helicopter.png Helicopter cost:95 M:12 C:1

A:10 D:5 HP:21 FP:2

SUD capable.

Transport Helicopter cost:90 M:12 C:3

A:0 D:3 HP:21 FP:2

Cruisemissile.png Cruise Missile cost:60 M:24

A:18 D:0 HP:10 FP:3

  • Never blocked from surface targets
Atom Bomb.png Atom Bomb cost:150 M:2

A:99 D:0 HP:10 FP:1

In the later part of the High Tech era, Air power escalates significantly.

  • Heavy Bombers can end one turn aloft before returning to a city, carrier, or airbase to refuel. They are Field Units, which under representative governments will cause Unhappiness in their Home City even when not aggressively deployed. In MP2, Bombers are no longer forced to remain stuck in the air after a single attack. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • AWACS offers greatly enlarged vision. Both units are unreachable by most land and sea units but do not block attacks on other units on the same tile. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • Strategic Bombers offer upgraded attack, high altitude to even the odds against Fighters, and much longer range for strategic missions. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • A Helicopter can conquer an undefended enemy city. Unlike planes, it does not have to end its turn inside a friendly city, fortress, or airbase; but it costs -1 hitpoint per turn if it doesn't. When a Helicopter starts its turn in a City or Airbase, it gets a +1 move bonus. It can be attacked by most land units from Riflemen onward, but enjoys a 50% defense bonus vs Land attacks. Artillery and Howitzers cannot attack them. It can be attacked by sea units from Ironclad onward. Helicopters are able to carry one Marines or one Anti-Aircraft Artillery unit. Helicopters can do Special Unit Defense, retaliating against Special Unit Attacks. Like all aircraft, Helicopters can Stack-Escape. In MP2, SAM Batteries get a 2× defense bonus against Helicopters.
  • Transport Helicopters behave exactly like Helicopters except for their inability to attack. They have an increased cargo capacity of 3 units, and are not limited to only Marines and AAA.
    • Cargo units who unload or disembark are bound by certain rules:
      • Foot and Artillery types can unload on any tile, but will lose all their moves, except:
      • Marines and AAA can unload with the Unload Transport (T) command with no movement penalty.
      • All other types need a City or a Base to unload in.
  • To survive, Cruise Missiles must end each turn in a city, Carrier, Submarine or airbase. They are always destroyed when they finally attack. Unreachable units can never block them from attacking reachable surface targets on the same tile.
  • Atom Bombs destroy everything cardinally adjacent to their impact area, but cause Nuclear Fallout which can increase chances of causing Nuclear Winter. They must be loaded on a Heavy Bomber or better Bomber, then unloaded ('dropped'), then detonated.

The Space Age[]

Nuclear.png Nuclear Missile cost:160 M:24

A:99 D:0 HP:10 FP:1

MobileSam.png Mobile SAM cost:75 M:6 C:1

A:2 D:2 HP:30 FP:2

  • Upgrades AAA
  • 2x Anti-Air defence
  • Can carry 1 Missile
Armor II.png Armor II cost:85 M:6

A:16 D:6 HP:30 FP:1

iPillage: 50% M:6 Targets:1 selected

  • Obsoletes Armor
  • 2x defence against Missiles
  • No penalties vs. Forts and Fortresses
  • Never blocked by Air units
Jet fighter.png Jet Fighter cost:70 M:24

A:6 D:5 HP:20 FP:2

  • Obsoletes Fighter
  • Obsoletes Escort Fighter
Gsf.png Ground Strike Fighter cost:80 M:21

A:7 D:4 HP:20 FP:2

iPillage: 75% M:3 Targets:1 selected

  • Obsoletes Dive Bomber
Jet bomber o.png Jet Bomber cost:145 M:19 C:3

A:15 D:1 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:3

iPillage: 75% M:3 Targets:2 random

  • Can carry 3 Bombs.
  • Obsoletes Medium Bomber
  • Obsoletes Heavy Bomber
Satellite.png Satellite cost:140 M:65

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1 Fuel:

  • Requires Apollo Program

Jet aircraft bring improvement to range and strength.

  • The Nuclear Missile offers the capacities of the Atom Bomb with self-propulsion, unreachability by other units, and greater range--making a deadly upgrade to an already deadly unit.
  • Armor II features high tech composite armor and electronic countermeasures (ECM). Forts and Fortresses gain no bonus against its ability to blast and break through fortifications. Composite materials and ECM frustrate missile sensors and offer improved impact resistance, giving 2x defense against missiles. Armor II can attack any reachable unit regardless of whether unreachable units are protecting the tile. While it lacks the raw firepower of a Howitzer, the above abilities combine with superior movement to open up ultra-modern tactics.
  • The Jet Fighter's balanced strength makes it an excellent multipurpose unit. Like all Fighter-types in all MP rulesets, the Jet Fighter prevents land and sea units from attacking the tile it is on. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape. Jet Fighters can vigil if they have used 3 moves or less.
  • Ground Strike Fighters upgrade the Dive Bomber. They cannot block attacks on other units on their tile, nor engage against Fighters. However, like the Dive Bomber, they can interdict ZoC over land tiles. High fuel capacity allows two turns in the air. No unit can stop this unit from attacking surface units on a tile. This unit can also do pinpointed surgical strikes to pillage tiles. This aircraft is a specialized niche unit. It is not an interceptor.
  • The Jet Bomber has 3 turns of fuel and can spend 2 turn changes in the air. Saturation bombing enables it to pillage enemy tiles. This prolongs its tactical use after Stealth is discovered. The Jet Bomber's stratospheric altitude makes it unreachable by AAA and propeller-based Fighters. In MP2, Bombers are no longer forced to remain stuck in the air after a single attack. The Jet Bomber is unreachable by most land and sea units but doesn't block attacks on other units on the same tile. Like all aircraft, they are subject to Stack-Escape.
  • The Satellite is the ultimate intel collection unit. They are unreachable to everything except Missile types. Their orbital velocity allows them to circumnavigate the planet in just a couple of turns. They never run out of fuel, and can Investigate City from high above the earth. Police Stations—which usually prevent such investigations—cannot stop high resolution cameras from gathering intel. However, Satellite technology is a rare achievement, as it first requires that the Apollo Program be built. NOTE: Due to game mechanics, Satellites block terrestrial movement over a tile. This is solved by killing it with any Missile. To avoid this, end the Satellite's turn far away from developed or trafficked areas, or on a tile with any friendly unit: Satellites have a 100% chance of Stack Escape.
Spyplane.png Spy Plane cost:160 M:34

A:0 D:1 HP:20 FP:1 Fuel:2

Stealthbomber.mp2c.png Stealth Bomber cost:160 M:24 C:2

A:19 D:5 HP:20 FP:2 Fuel:2

  • Can carry 2 Bombs.
  • iPillage: 80% M:4 Targets:1 selected
Stealth fighter.png Stealth Fighter cost:80 M:28

A:8 D:4 HP:20 FP:2

The final military advances produce stealth aircraft. They offer greater strength and long range, and are invisible to enemy units and cities except when over an adjacent square. Unlike other Air units, their stealthy "radar invisibility" makes them suffer only a 1.25x defense penalty against SAM batteries. Stealth Aircraft also have a higher 67% chance of Stack-Escape.

  • Spy Planes have ultrasonic speed and fly at altitudes so high that they avoid detection. This also makes them unreachable except to jet aircraft, AEGIS Cruiser, and Mobile SAM. This along with stealth, slight increase in range, and greater vision, make them a significant upgrade over the AWACS.
  • Stealth Fighters, like all Fighter-types in all MP rulesets, prevent Land and most Sea units from attacking the tile they are on. Stealth Fighters can vigil if they have used 4 moves or less.
  • The Stealth Bomber is unreachable by most Land and Sea units, but doesn't block attacks on other units on the same tile. In MP2, Bombers are no longer forced to remain stuck in the air after a single attack.Like all aircraft, both are subject to Stack-Escape.


Tacticalnuke.png Tactical Nuke cost:140 M:18
Hbomb.png Hydrogen Bomb cost:190 M:2
Doomsdaybomb.png Doomsday Bomb cost:1000 M:2

The above weapons are regulated by the setting nukes_major which can be optionally set to OFF. These nuclear weapons require an Enrichment Facility in the city where they're built, and also require the Manhattan Project to have been built by any nation in the world.

  • Tactical Nukes are very small warheads attached to missiles. A Tactical Nuke destroys all units on a single tile. City population is reduced by half. The target tile may get Nuclear Fallout. In theory, Tactical Nukes are small enough to get the advantages of nuclear armaments without the severity of consequences. In reality, they might be a gateway that escalates toward mutual assured destruction.
  • Hydrogen Bombs make Atom Bombs seem tame. Any unprotected city at Ground Zero will be absolutely annihilated. In other cities in the blast radius, population is reduced by about 75%. Blast area is 21 tiles: the same area as an entire city (5x5 minus the corners.) All units within the blast are destroyed. Nuclear Fallout from a Hydrogen Bomb is grave, with more than double the contaminated area.
  • The Doomsday Bomb is the mother of all bombs. Blast radius is 5 tiles in all directions. Only one can be made at a time. A city at Ground Zero will be annihilated. Other cities in the blast area lose about 75% of their population. All units within the blast are completely destroyed. The Nuclear Fallout from a Doomsday Bomb is a sure ticket to Nuclear Winter.
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